Aerobic capacity: how much oxygen your body can deliver to your exercising muscles. Increase
the amount of oxygen and you can run faster. Training increases aerobic
Anaerobic: means "without air", During anaerobic exercise the muscles exercised
have insufficient oxygen to meet the demands of the activity. Speed training
(fartleks, intervals) take advantage of the body temporarily exceeding
the anaerobic threshold and attempts to increase it.
Banquet: The annual awards ceremony held at the conclusion of the season.
Cross country: Often referred to merely as ‘cross", this is a team sport that involves
competing at running over varied terrain.
Cross training: Combining of exercises to work various parts of the body. Weight lifting,
bike riding, swimming, eliptical and ultimate frisbee workouts are all
examples of cross training to continue to maintain aerobic capacity and
strength during recovery days.
Dual meet: A meet involving two teams. A triangular meet involves three teams
Easy run (a.k.a. Recovery run): part of the beginning and ending of all types of training to warm up and
cool down the body. Can also be used as a training run to allow the body
to recover from a previous days hard effort, typically done at a 1-1:20
minutes over normal mile pace.
Fartlek: Swedish term when literally translated means speed play. A variation of
interval training where the runner varies the pace significantly during
the run with no predetermined schedule but in response to their own feelings
of the work effort. This technique is used to develop speed and pace.
Finish chute: The roped off area immediately after the
finish line where the runners’ places are recorded and runners are given their
places on the finish cards.
Harrier: Common and traditional nickname for a cross-country runner.
Hill runs: Used to build strength (especially in quadricep muscles). Can involve sprints
up and down a specific hill or a training route involving a route with
several climbs. Develops anaerobic capacity as well as running economy.
Intervals: Intervals are a series of efforts run at speeds faster than normal pace
with a rest interval (usually a walk or slow jog). These workouts are used
to develop speed.
Invitational: A meet involving a number of teams (anywhere
from 5 to 50) who have been invited to compete.
Lactic Acid: intense running in practice will cause lactic acid (the by-product of
muscle function) to accumulate in the muscles and is a factor in causing
pain and fatigue.
Leveling: Assigning how much running an athlete will do each day based on age, previous
experience, time of year, and most importantly previous training that athlete
Long run: The longest run of the week, typically for our runners, 4-7 miles. For
marathoners long runs increase throughout the training period to acclimate
the athlete, both physically and mentally to race day distance. The pace
is basically at "easy run" pace. Used to push the endurance barrier.
Logbook: A record that a runner keeps where they will "log" the training
they do each day.
Pace: The rate of speed maintained over a certain
Pack: Any group of teammates running close together in a meet or in practice.
Personal Record or PR: Best performance time on a specific course or any course – usually called
Running economy: the amount of oxygen you consume when running at a steady but less than
all-out pace. The less oxygen used, the better your running economy.
Surge: An increase in speed for during a race used as a tactical move.
Tempo run: This is a run that is faster than the usual training pace teaching the
body to run at a fast pace for long periods of time. Typically these are
3-4 mile runs. This training is used for speed and pace.
Training shoes: Shoes for daily practice usually with more support and weight than racing
flats which are lightweight and worn to race in on smooth courses. Most
cross runners compete in spikes which enable them to get a better grip
on the grassy or muddy surfaces.
Warmup: The period of easy running, stretching, and sprinting designed to prepare
the heart and the muscles for practices or meets. Afterwards, the warmdown
is designed to return the body to a "normal state".
XC: Abbreviation for cross country.